Magic Squares

Magic squares have been known for a long time. The oldest known magic square goes back to the Emperor Yu, who lived about 2200 B.C. in China. Although this is only a legend, it shows how this fascinating part of mathematics has occupied human beings for thousands of years.


On these pages some general information about magic squares and their properties can be found. As too much theory sometimes looks very dry, some fascinating magic squares are presented in a gallery.

Another main aspect deals with the construction of magic squares. Some design techniques are presented in detail, but most of them are described in my PDF document. Additionally you can choose from a great variety of different methods to produce magic squares interactive.

If you are interested in an english translation of this PDF document, please send an email. If enough readers want such a translation, i will consider it, although it takes a lot of work. And if you even kindly offer to proofread some pages of my translation, this would be a great help. (only spelling etc., not the contents)

Note: Some parts of these interactive pages may change in the background. When you encounter strange behavior or even errors, first try bypassing your browser cache.

Have fun, dani

Last update:   Su 04. Oct 2020  –  new methods + extended book